适用于下一代网络的可扩展,可互操作且安全的网络协议

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任何类型的数据穿越不同类型的区块链

Polkadot是一个网络协议,能够传递任何 数据(不只限于代币)到所有区块链。

这意味着Polkadot是一个真正的多链应用环境,使跨链注册和跨链计算等类似操作成为可能。

Polkadot能传递数据到公共、开放、公开的区块链和私有或联盟链。

这使得构建从私有链获得许可数据并在公有链上使用的应用程序成为可能(例如,学校私有的学位记录区块链可以向公有链上的学位验证智能合约发送证明)。

Network Glossary

Polkadot unites a network of heterogeneous blockchains called parachains and parathreads. These chains connect to and are secured by the Polkadot Relay Chain. They can also connect with external networks via bridges.

Connecting the dots

Relay Chain

The heart of Polkadot, responsible for the network’s shared security, consensus and cross-chain interoperability.

Parachains

Sovereign blockchains that can have their own tokens and optimize their functionality for specific use cases.

Parathreads

Similar to parachains but with a pay-as-you-go model. More economical for blockchains that don’t need continuous connectivity to the network.

Bridges

Allow parachains and parathreads to connect and communicate with external networks like Ethereum and Bitcoin.

Consensus Roles

Nominators

Secure the Relay Chain by selecting trustworty validators and staking dots.

Validators

Secure the relay chain by staking dots, validating proofs from collators and participating in consensus with other validators.

Collators

Maintain shards by collecting shard transactions from users and producing proofs for validator.

Fishermen

Monitor the network and report bad behavior to validators. Collators and any parachain full node can perform the fisherman role.

Governance Roles

Council Members

Elected to represent passive stakeholders in two primary governance roles: proposing referenda and vetoing dangerous or malicious referenda.

Technical Committee

Composed of teams actively building Polkadot. Can propose emergency referenda, together with the council, for fast-tracked voting and implementation.

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利用最好的技术建立

Polkadot的中继链是使用Substrate构建的,这是一种区块链构建框架,是Parity Technologies构建以太坊,比特币和企业区块链的经验的升华。

Polkadot的状态机被编译为WebAssembly(Wasm),这是一个超高性能的虚拟环境。 Wasm是由谷歌,苹果,微软和Mozilla等专业公司开发的,它们已经为该标准创建了一个庞大的生态系统。

Polkadot的网络使用libp2p,这是一种灵活的跨平台网络框架,用于点对点应用程序。 libp2p定位为未来去中心应用程序的标准,处理Polkadot生态系统中的对等方的发现和通信。

Polkadot运行时环境正在使用Rust,C ++和Golang进行编码,使得Polkadot可以供广大的开发人员访问。

并行处理交易

连接到Polkadot的平行链都是专门的区块链, 每个平行链都具有独特的特征和自治的主权。

链的交互是并行处理的,从而实现了高度可扩展的系统。

事务可以跨链分布,允许在同一时间段内处理更多事务。

现时方法:
单一交易

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Polkadot方法:
多个并行交易

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Groundbreaking Technology

Polkadot is solving many of the problems that have held back blockchain technology so far — all in one place, without compromising.

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更好的安全模型

在工作证明和权益关系证明系统中,区块链相互竞争资源以确保其网络的安全,并且区块链很容易受到攻击,直到它们发展出一个重要的社区来支持它们的网络。

Polkadot采用了一种不同的方法,让区块链共享它们的安全性,这意味着区块链的安全性被聚合并应用于所有的区块链。

通过把他们的区块链连接到Polkadot,区块链开发人员可以从最开始就保护他们的区块链。

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高透明的链上治理

协议的更新是通过透明的链上投票来实现的,所以协议的开发不会因为缺少一个清晰的过程而停滞。中继链使用复杂的治理机制,旨在为解决争端和升级网络建立透明、负责任和有约束力的过程。

DOT代币用于在参与治理决定 (包括:提交议案,投票,绑定)

平行链可以有自由设计它们自己的治理机制, 在不影响其它平行链情况下实现最大自由。

了解更多关于Polkadot治理
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GRANDPA:一个值得信赖的共识算法。

Polkadot使用其原始的GRANDPA(基于GHOST的Recursive Ancestor Deriving Prefix Agreement)共识来建立一个更安全,更有弹性的网络。

在良好的网络条件下,GRANDPA几乎可以瞬间完成分块。在糟糕的网络条件下,比如网络分区,GRANDPA可以在分区解析时一次性完成大量的块(理论上是数百万个)。

了解更多关于GRANDPA.

路线图

Polkadot开发的愿景是为互操作性,安全性,可扩展性和创新提供最强大的平台。 Polkadot的目标是在2019年底之前发布一条中继链和几条平行链以启动创世块。此后,网络将增加到大约100条平行链。

  • PoA

    Web3 Foundation will launch Polkadot in Proof of Authority mode. During this time, most users will be able to:

    Claim tokens from their Ethereum contract,
    Stake tokens and declare their intent to validate or nominate.

    Validators will also be able to set their Session keys in preparation for Proof of Stake, and Web3 Foundation will be able to use the Sudo key to manage the chain and enable more features.

    Advancing to the Next Phase

    Once the network is running smoothly and has a sufficient number of well staked validators, we will enable Nominated Proof of Stake with a Sudo call to change eras, and therefore perform the first validator election.

  • NPoS

    During Nominated Proof of Stake, the network will run with a decentralized set of validators. During this phase, Web3 Foundation will use Sudo to increase the number of validators in the set.

    Advancing to the Next Phase

    Once Web3 Foundation is confident that the network is working well - no slashing due to client issues, functioning validator elections - the Sudo key will issue a runtime upgrade that enables Polkadot's governance system.

  • Governance and Removing Sudo

    With Polkadot's governance system enabled, it can elect the first Council and Technical Committee and start accepting public proposals. While the Sudo key might still be needed for a few operations, governance can take over most of the chain's decisions. Once Sudo is removed, root calls will only be dispatchable via governance.

    Advancing to the Next Phase

    With a Council and Technical Committee in place, Sudo will be removed. Without Sudo, Polkadot is fully in the hands of the token holders. One of the first features they will enable is token transfers with a runtime upgrade.

  • Enable Balance Transfers

    Polkadot allows balance transfers.

    Advancing to the Next Phase

    To enable remaining functionality, Polkadot's governance will need to pass one (or a series of) runtime upgrades.

  • Enable Core Functionality

    Once governance enables parachain auctions and XCMP, Polkadot will have a fully functional Relay Chain. Where it goes from here is up to the token holders.

有那些团队在Polkadot上建立?以下有几个例子:

利用WebAssembly的智能合约链 (EdgewareCharred Cherry testnet

将所有文件存储链连接到托管数据集的数据管理网络(Ocean Protocol)

预言机链,可以为Polkadot网络上的所有合约提供链下数据(ChainLink

将帐户链接到长期身份并通过更少的帐户来访问其他平行链的身份链(Speckle OS

允许您将所有资产保存在一个投资组合中的金融链,包括通过桥接的比特币,以太坊,比特币现金,莱特币和ZCash(ChainXKatallassos)的桥梁

物联网链为机器对机器通信设定物联网标准(MXC Protocol协议)

零知识隐私链或连接到现有ZK-snarks链

文件存储链,激励在链上存储数据

桥接以太坊,允许以太坊智能合约与Polkadot网络互动

想立即开始? 在Polkadot上建立