Polkadot Launch:
Nominated Proof of Stake Phase

Web3 Foundation was confident in the stability of the network after PoA. After reaching a sufficient number of validator intentions in the PoA phase, the network successfully transitioned to Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS). During this phase, Web3 Foundation took a step towards decentralizing the network by increasing the active validator set from 20 to 100 active community validator nodes.

Explore what you can do on the NPoS network

Now that Polkadot has transitioned to NPoS, there are a number of things that are possible on the network. Developers can continue to work on bounties, validators can begin securing the Relay Chain and validating proofs, and nominators can now participate in the staking environment by nominating validators.


Put your knowledge to work and grab one of the bounties. Build cool things like wallets, dashboards, tooling...and earn a nice bounty while doing it!


Validators secure the Polkadot Relay Chain by staking DOT, validating proofs from collators and participating in consensus with other validators.


Community members can now participate in the network by nominating a set of validators on the network with their DOT.

How do we move forward?

Once Web3 Foundation was confident that the network was working well - no slashing due to client issues, functioning validator elections (approx. 100) - the Sudo key issued a runtime upgrade to enables Polkadot's governance system.

See All Phases
  • Polkadot uses a Nominated Proof of Stake system where nominators back validators with their own stake as a show of faith in the good behavior of the validator. Nominated Proof of Stake differs from the more generic concept Delegated Proof of Stake in that nominators are subject to loss of stake if they nominate a bad validator.

  • Before governance is enabled, the Web3 Foundation team will slowly transition the network’s validator set from 25 to 100 validators. This process is expected to take approximately 2-3 weeks.

  • Polkadot will be operated by Web3 Foundation nodes during PoA and will be a permissioned blockchain in this stage. When Polkadot transitions to Nominated Proof of Stake, the network will be a permissionless and decentralized chain operated by a set of community validators.

  • What does nominating mean? keyboard_arrow_right

    Since Polkadot uses a Nominated Proof of Stake mechanism, both Polkadot and Kusama refer to staking tokens with a validator as ‘nominating’. This can be compared to what many other networks simply call ‘staking’ for regular users. As a Polkadot nominator, you can nominate one or more (up to 16) validators that you trust to help you earn rewards in DOT.

  • Delegated Proof of Stake networks weigh validators by stake, oftentimes allowing the highest-stake validators to take disproportionate control of the network’s consensus protocol. Delegated PoS networks also require users to specify the amount they want to stake with a given validator. In Delegated Proof of Stake networks, delegators are not subject to loss of stake based on the behavior of the validator.

    With Polkadot’s Nominated Proof of Stake, nominators select up to 16 validators they trust, and the network will automatically distribute the stake among validators in an even manner. Polkadot uses tools ranging from election theory to game theory to discrete optimization, to develop an efficient validator selection process that offers fair representation and security, thus avoiding uneven power and influence among validators. Another key difference in Polkadot's Nominated Proof-of-Stake in that nominators are subject to loss of stake if they nominate a bad validator.

  • Can I transfer my DOT? keyboard_arrow_right

    No, DOT transferability is not yet enabled in the NPoS stage, however, it is possible to claim DOT if you have bought them in the initial token sale.

  • When DOT, kind sir? keyboard_arrow_right


  • You are welcome to join Polkadot‘s official Discord channel or Element chat. For all governance related discussions, join the Polkadot Direction Element chat or visit Polkassembly. Validators can join the Polkadot Validator Lounge on Element. Or visit our support page, where you can find answers to most issues and questions.

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